infinity-imagined:

Helicoprion is a genus of prehistoric shark-like fish that lived from the late Carboniferous to the Permian mass extinction, 310 to 250 million years ago.  They are distinguished by spiral clusters of teeth, called ‘tooth whorls’.  These structures may have functioned to allow the teeth to be continually regenerated throughout life.  Because these animals had skeletons made of cartilage, not much else in known about their body structure or lifestyle.

s-c-i-guy:

The Cambrian Explosion
The Cambrian explosion, or Cambrian radiation, was the relatively rapid appearance, around 542 million years ago, of most major animal phyla, as demonstrated in the fossil record. This was accompanied by major diversification of other organisms. Before about 580 million years ago, most organisms were simple, composed of individual cells occasionally organized into colonies. Over the following 70 or 80 million years, the rate of evolution accelerated by an order of magnitude and the diversity of life began to resemble that of today. Ancestors of many of the present phyla appeared during this period, with the exception of Bryozoa, which made its earliest known appearance in the Lower Ordovician.
The Cambrian explosion has generated extensive scientific debate. The seemingly rapid appearance of fossils in the “Primordial Strata” was noted as early as the 1840s, and in 1859 Charles Darwin discussed it as one of the main objections that could be made against his theory of evolution by natural selection. The long-running puzzlement about the appearance of the Cambrian fauna, seemingly abruptly and from nowhere, centers on three key points: whether there really was a mass diversification of complex organisms over a relatively short period of time during the early Cambrian; what might have caused such rapid change; and what it would imply about the origin and evolution of animals. Interpretation is difficult due to a limited supply of evidence, based mainly on an incomplete fossil record and chemical signatures remaining in Cambrian rocks.
Phylogenetic analysis has supported the view that during the Cambrian radiation metazoa evolved monophyletically from a single common ancestor: flagellated colonial protists similar to modern choanoflagellates.
source
high resolution →

s-c-i-guy:

The Cambrian Explosion

The Cambrian explosion, or Cambrian radiation, was the relatively rapid appearance, around 542 million years ago, of most major animal phyla, as demonstrated in the fossil record. This was accompanied by major diversification of other organisms. Before about 580 million years ago, most organisms were simple, composed of individual cells occasionally organized into colonies. Over the following 70 or 80 million years, the rate of evolution accelerated by an order of magnitude and the diversity of life began to resemble that of today. Ancestors of many of the present phyla appeared during this period, with the exception of Bryozoa, which made its earliest known appearance in the Lower Ordovician.

The Cambrian explosion has generated extensive scientific debate. The seemingly rapid appearance of fossils in the “Primordial Strata” was noted as early as the 1840s, and in 1859 Charles Darwin discussed it as one of the main objections that could be made against his theory of evolution by natural selection. The long-running puzzlement about the appearance of the Cambrian fauna, seemingly abruptly and from nowhere, centers on three key points: whether there really was a mass diversification of complex organisms over a relatively short period of time during the early Cambrian; what might have caused such rapid change; and what it would imply about the origin and evolution of animals. Interpretation is difficult due to a limited supply of evidence, based mainly on an incomplete fossil record and chemical signatures remaining in Cambrian rocks.

Phylogenetic analysis has supported the view that during the Cambrian radiation metazoa evolved monophyletically from a single common ancestor: flagellated colonial protists similar to modern choanoflagellates.

source

Gum 41
Image Credit: ESO
high resolution →

Gum 41

Image Credit: ESO

(Source: space.com)

fuckyeahaquaria:

Manta Ray | Manta alfredi
(by Kumukulanui)
high resolution →

fuckyeahaquaria:

Manta Ray | Manta alfredi

(by Kumukulanui)

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science-junkie:

How To: Improve your Memory

Nearly everyone wants a better memory. To just be able to remember the last item on a shopping list, or where they put their car keys. But most importantly, remember all the information for exams. This video has tips and tricks to improving your memory in all kinds of ways.

Source:

1. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Memory
2. http://www.helpguide.org/life/improving_memory.htm
3. http://www.spring.org.uk/2013/10/10-surprising-and-mostly-easy-ways-to-improve-your-memory.php

"Getting Closer and Closer" —Kepler Mission Findings Reveal Alien Star Systems in a Milky Way Teeming with Planets
Five years ago today, on March 6, 2009, NASA’s Kepler Space Telescope rocketed into the night skies to find planets around other stars within a field of view 1/400th the size of the Milky Way in search of potentially habitable worlds. Since then, Kepler has unveiled a whole new side of our galaxy — one that is teeming with planets. Because of Kepler we now know that most stars have planets, Earth-sized planets are common, and planets quite unlike those in our solar system exist.
"This is the biggest haul ever,” says Jason Rowe of the nasa Ames Research Center, who co-led the research. The scientists studied more than 1,200 planetary systems and validated 715 planets. All the new worlds are members of multiplanet systems—stars with more than one orbiting satellite.
Continue Reading
high resolution →

"Getting Closer and Closer" —Kepler Mission Findings Reveal Alien Star Systems in a Milky Way Teeming with Planets

Five years ago today, on March 6, 2009, NASA’s Kepler Space Telescope rocketed into the night skies to find planets around other stars within a field of view 1/400th the size of the Milky Way in search of potentially habitable worlds. Since then, Kepler has unveiled a whole new side of our galaxy — one that is teeming with planets. Because of Kepler we now know that most stars have planets, Earth-sized planets are common, and planets quite unlike those in our solar system exist.

"This is the biggest haul ever,” says Jason Rowe of the nasa Ames Research Center, who co-led the research. The scientists studied more than 1,200 planetary systems and validated 715 planets. All the new worlds are members of multiplanet systems—stars with more than one orbiting satellite.

Continue Reading

thecraftychemist:

Scale of the universe

Scroll to your hearts content from the Planck length to the diameter of the observable universe - click on any object and it will open an info box - I can’t imagine how much work must have gone into this. A few surprising things: Pluto has a smaller diameter than the width of the USA and Vatican city can fit in central park multiple times.

Find it here

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jtotheizzoe:

Wanna get dirty with me?

From star stuff to microscopic fluff to skin cells that slough while you’re in the buff, the universe of dust is curious enough to turn your mind into a cream puff.

May this week’s episode spread like dust on the wind.

Enjoy this video? Subscribe to It’s Okay To be Smart on YouTube!

New Evidence Suggests Pluto Has An Ocean Beneath Its Surface
Astronomers believe that Pluto and its moon were the result of two massive objects slamming into each other. The resulting gravitational dynamic may have warmed the interior of Pluto, creating an ocean comprised of liquid water. Remarkably, this underground sea could still be there.
The idea that Pluto has an ocean underneath its icy surface is not new. Back in 2011, astronomers speculated that, despite its frigid surface temperature, the distant minor-planet could host liquid oceans if two conditions were met. First, it has to have a core rich in potassium to produce enough radioactive decay. And second, the flow of ice on the surface needs to be sufficiently slow-moving (otherwise too much heat would be wasted).
Seems a bit speculative, and it is. But a new scenario, as proposed by Amy Barr and Geoffrey Collins, suggests a different kind of process.
Related: Subsurface oceans on Europa and Enceladus.
high resolution →

New Evidence Suggests Pluto Has An Ocean Beneath Its Surface

Astronomers believe that Pluto and its moon were the result of two massive objects slamming into each other. The resulting gravitational dynamic may have warmed the interior of Pluto, creating an ocean comprised of liquid water. Remarkably, this underground sea could still be there.

The idea that Pluto has an ocean underneath its icy surface is not new. Back in 2011, astronomers speculated that, despite its frigid surface temperature, the distant minor-planet could host liquid oceans if two conditions were met. First, it has to have a core rich in potassium to produce enough radioactive decay. And second, the flow of ice on the surface needs to be sufficiently slow-moving (otherwise too much heat would be wasted).

Seems a bit speculative, and it is. But a new scenario, as proposed by Amy Barr and Geoffrey Collins, suggests a different kind of process.

Related: Subsurface oceans on Europa and Enceladus.

Dwarf Planet Discovery Could Help Show Life’s Spread Through Solar System
On March 26, researchers announced the discovery of 2012 VP133, an estimated 280-mile wide (450-kilometer) object that lies just beyond the Kuiper Belt of icy objects that swarm outside of Neptune’s orbit.
The new object is nicknamed “Biden” after the vice-president of the United States, because both Joe Biden and 2012 VP133 are “VPs.” It is one of only two dwarf planets discovered beyond the Kuiper Belt, with Sedna (a decade ago) being the other one. The paper, “A Sedna-like body with a perihelion of 80 astronomical units,” was published in the journal Nature.
Continue Reading
high resolution →

Dwarf Planet Discovery Could Help Show Life’s Spread Through Solar System

On March 26, researchers announced the discovery of 2012 VP133, an estimated 280-mile wide (450-kilometer) object that lies just beyond the Kuiper Belt of icy objects that swarm outside of Neptune’s orbit.

The new object is nicknamed “Biden” after the vice-president of the United States, because both Joe Biden and 2012 VP133 are “VPs.” It is one of only two dwarf planets discovered beyond the Kuiper Belt, with Sedna (a decade ago) being the other one. The paper, “A Sedna-like body with a perihelion of 80 astronomical units,” was published in the journal Nature.

Continue Reading

Five Things We Don’t Know About Tyrannosaurus Rex
As the Smithsonian welcomes the arrival of its fossil rex, scientists reveal all that we have yet to learn about this magnificent creature
At the crack of dawn this morning, a long-awaited Tyrannosaurus rex skeleton, dubbed the Nation’s T. rex, ended its epic road trip, when a 53-foot-long semi pulled up to the loading dock at the National Museum of Natural History in Washington, DC. The arrival of the Nation’s T. Rex marks both the end of the specimen’s long journey from its previous home at the Museum of the Rockies in Bozeman, Montana, and the end of the Smithsonian’s long quest to acquire a T. rex specimen.
Originally named for its discoverer, rancher Kathy Wankel who found it in 1988 in eastern Montana, the fossil was excavated by paleontologist Jack Horner in 1989 to 1990. The 65-million-year-old specimen is one of the most complete T. rex skeletons found. At 38-feet-long and weighing in at 7 tons, the fossil skeleton now called the Nation’s T-rex will get its moment in the spotlight, as part of the museum’s dinosaur hall, which will close for renovations on April 28 to reopen again in 2019.
Continue Reading
high resolution →

Five Things We Don’t Know About Tyrannosaurus Rex

As the Smithsonian welcomes the arrival of its fossil rex, scientists reveal all that we have yet to learn about this magnificent creature

At the crack of dawn this morning, a long-awaited Tyrannosaurus rex skeleton, dubbed the Nation’s T. rexended its epic road trip, when a 53-foot-long semi pulled up to the loading dock at the National Museum of Natural History in Washington, DC. The arrival of the Nation’s T. Rex marks both the end of the specimen’s long journey from its previous home at the Museum of the Rockies in Bozeman, Montana, and the end of the Smithsonian’s long quest to acquire a T. rex specimen.

Originally named for its discoverer, rancher Kathy Wankel who found it in 1988 in eastern Montana, the fossil was excavated by paleontologist Jack Horner in 1989 to 1990. The 65-million-year-old specimen is one of the most complete T. rex skeletons found. At 38-feet-long and weighing in at 7 tons, the fossil skeleton now called the Nation’s T-rex will get its moment in the spotlight, as part of the museum’s dinosaur hall, which will close for renovations on April 28 to reopen again in 2019.

Continue Reading

Brain Anatomy Differences Between Deaf and Hearing Depend on First Language Learned
In the first known study of its kind, researchers have shown that the language we learn as children affects brain structure, as does hearing status. The findings are reported in the Journal of Neuroscience.
While research has shown that people who are deaf and hearing differ in brain anatomy, these studies have been limited to studies of individuals who are deaf and use American Sign Language (ASL) from birth. But 95 percent of the deaf population in America is born to hearing parents and use English or another spoken language as their first language, usually through lip-reading. Since both language and audition are housed in nearby locations in the brain, understanding which differences are attributed to hearing and which to language is critical in understanding the mechanisms by which experience shapes the brain.
Continue Reading
high resolution →

Brain Anatomy Differences Between Deaf and Hearing Depend on First Language Learned

In the first known study of its kind, researchers have shown that the language we learn as children affects brain structure, as does hearing status. The findings are reported in the Journal of Neuroscience.

While research has shown that people who are deaf and hearing differ in brain anatomy, these studies have been limited to studies of individuals who are deaf and use American Sign Language (ASL) from birth. But 95 percent of the deaf population in America is born to hearing parents and use English or another spoken language as their first language, usually through lip-reading. Since both language and audition are housed in nearby locations in the brain, understanding which differences are attributed to hearing and which to language is critical in understanding the mechanisms by which experience shapes the brain.

Continue Reading

distant-traveller:

Unusual dusty galaxy NGC 7049

How was this unusual looking galaxy created? No one is sure, especially since spiral galaxy NGC 7049 looks so strange. NGC 7049’s striking appearance is primarily due to an unusually prominent dust ring seen mostly in silhouette. The opaque ring is much darker than the din of millions of bright stars glowing behind it. Besides the dark dust, NGC 7049 appears similar to a smooth elliptical galaxy, although featuring surprisingly few globular star clusters. NGC 7049 is pictured above as imaged recently by the Hubble Space Telescope. The bright star near the top of NGC 7049 is an unrelated foreground star in our own Galaxy. Not visible here is an unusual central polar ring of gas circling out of the plane near the galaxy’s center. Since NGC 7049 is the brightest galaxy in its cluster of galaxies, its formation might be fostered by several prominent and recent galaxy collisions. NGC 7049 spans about 150 thousand light years and lies about 100 million light years away toward the constellation of Indus.

Image credit: NASA, ESA and W. Harris (McMaster University)
high resolution →

distant-traveller:

Unusual dusty galaxy NGC 7049

How was this unusual looking galaxy created? No one is sure, especially since spiral galaxy NGC 7049 looks so strange. NGC 7049’s striking appearance is primarily due to an unusually prominent dust ring seen mostly in silhouette. The opaque ring is much darker than the din of millions of bright stars glowing behind it. Besides the dark dust, NGC 7049 appears similar to a smooth elliptical galaxy, although featuring surprisingly few globular star clusters. NGC 7049 is pictured above as imaged recently by the Hubble Space Telescope. The bright star near the top of NGC 7049 is an unrelated foreground star in our own Galaxy. Not visible here is an unusual central polar ring of gas circling out of the plane near the galaxy’s center. Since NGC 7049 is the brightest galaxy in its cluster of galaxies, its formation might be fostered by several prominent and recent galaxy collisions. NGC 7049 spans about 150 thousand light years and lies about 100 million light years away toward the constellation of Indus.

Image credit: NASA, ESA and W. Harris (McMaster University)

Night on the Mountain
Image Credit: Jesse Summers
high resolution →

Night on the Mountain

Image Credit: Jesse Summers

(Source: facebook.com)

libutron:

Ameerega bilinguis | ©Santiago Ron   (Yasuni National Park, Ecuador)
The Ecuador poison frog, Ameerega bilinguis (Dendrobatidae), is known from the Ecuadorian Amazon Basin in Napo moist forests in the Eastern tropical Altitudinal Zone, and from the department of Putumayo in Colombia [1].
This brightly coloured poison dart frog has a granular red dorsum and a blue and black mottled venter. The degree of mottling and depth of blue color varies from individual to individual. Most Ameerega bilinguis posses a yellow spot at the top of the front and rear legs, again, the size and extent of the spots are variable. The dorsal surfaces of the limbs are dark, whereas the ventral surfaces are a variable shade of blue. There is also a white stripe that runs from the top of the forelimbs, along the top lip towards the snout. Juveniles do not possess the red granular dorsum, it is black. The red color appears steadily as the frog matures to adulthood. A golden canthal stripe may be visible [2].
high resolution →

libutron:

Ameerega bilinguis | ©Santiago Ron   (Yasuni National Park, Ecuador)

The Ecuador poison frog, Ameerega bilinguis (Dendrobatidae), is known from the Ecuadorian Amazon Basin in Napo moist forests in the Eastern tropical Altitudinal Zone, and from the department of Putumayo in Colombia [1].

This brightly coloured poison dart frog has a granular red dorsum and a blue and black mottled venter. The degree of mottling and depth of blue color varies from individual to individual. Most Ameerega bilinguis posses a yellow spot at the top of the front and rear legs, again, the size and extent of the spots are variable. The dorsal surfaces of the limbs are dark, whereas the ventral surfaces are a variable shade of blue. There is also a white stripe that runs from the top of the forelimbs, along the top lip towards the snout. Juveniles do not possess the red granular dorsum, it is black. The red color appears steadily as the frog matures to adulthood. A golden canthal stripe may be visible [2].